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Composition and properties of the glass fiber

Glass production of glass fiber with different from other glass products glass. At present, the glass composition on international has been commercialized for fibers are as follows:

1, E- glass or alkali-free glass, a borosilicate glass. At present is the component with glass a glass fiber of the most widely used, has good mechanical strength and electrical insulation, widely used in glass fiber production of insulation, also used in glass fiber production of glass steel, it is easy to be inorganic acid erosion, therefore not suitable for use in acidic environment.

Alkali glass, glass also known as C- 2, which is characterized by chemical resistance, especially resistance is better than that of alkali-free glass, but poor electric property, mechanical strength is less than that of alkali-free glass fiber is 10% ~ 20%, three boron oxide alkali glass fiber abroad usually contains a certain quantity of two, while the alkali glass fiber in China is completely free of boron. In foreign countries, alkali glass fiber is used in the production of glass fiber products corrosion resistance, such as used in the production of glass fiber mat, also used to enhance the asphalt roofing materials, but hold in my junior high alkali glass fiber glass fiber yield more than half (60%), widely used in reinforced glass steel and filter fabric, dress fabric material production, because of its personality is lower than the alkali-free glass fiber and have strong competitiveness.

3, the high strength glass fiber is characterized by high strength, high modulus, single fiber tensile strength it is 2800MPa, about 25% of alkali-free glass fiber with high tensile strength, elastic modulus 86000MPa, than E- glass fiber with high strength. Glass steel products with their production for military, space, armour and sports equipment. But because the price is high, is not currently in the civil widely, the total world production is thousands of tons.

4, AR glass fiber, alkali-resistant glass fiber, is mainly developed for reinforced cement.

5, A glass or high alkali glass, is a typical sodium silicate glass, because the water resistance is poor, rarely used in the production of glass fiber.

6, E-CR glass is a kind of improved without boron alkali-free glass, used in the production of acid resistance of glass fiber, its water resistance than alkali-free glass fiber is improved by 7 ~ 8 times, acid-resistant alkali glass fiber is superior than many, is the development of new varieties for underground pipes, tanks and so on.

7, D glass or low dielectric glass, used in the production of dielectric strength and low dielectric glass fiber.

In addition to glass fiber components above, in recent years is the emergence of a new alkali-free glass fiber, it is completely free of boron, thus reducing environmental pollution, but its electrical insulating properties and mechanical properties are similar to traditional E glass. There is also a double glass composition for glass fiber, has been used in the production of glass fiber, it also has potential for fiberglass reinforced material. In addition, no fluoride glass fiber, is developed for improved environmental requirements and the alkali-free glass fiber.

glass fiber product varieties and uses

1, twistless roving

Twistless roving is composed of parallel strand or parallel filaments clustered into. Twistless roving in glass composition can be divided into: alkali-free glass twistless roving and alkali glass twistless roving. Glass fiber diameter from 12 ~ 23 μ m with the production of glass roving. Twistless roving the number from 150 to 9600 (Tex). Twistless roving can be directly used for some process for composite method, such as winding, pultrusion process, because of its uniform tension, can also be woven into untwisted yarn fabric, in certain applications will also further chopped roving without

(1) injection twistless roving suitable for glass steel spray roving should have the following properties: cut without forming the use of good, static electricity is produced in a continuous high-speed cutting less; inefficient roving after cutting into precursor to high, namely splitting rate high, usually require more than 90%; the short cut raw silk has excellent coating, can cover every corner of the die; the resin impregnated fast, easy to be roller of roller flat and easy to expel air bubbles; the original wire unwinding performance is good, yarn density is uniform, suitable for all kinds of spray gun and fiber transmission system. Injection with twistless roving is composed of a plurality of primary winding system, each strand with 200 glass fiber monofilament.

(2) twistless roving SMC sheet molding compound with SMC, mainly used for suppression of auto parts, bathtub, water tank plate, purification tank, all seats. SMC twistless roving in the manufacture of SMC sheet to be cut into Lin (25mm) in length, dispersed in the resin paste, so the SMC twistless roving requirement is short of good, low fuzz, excellent antistatic property, in cutting short cut will not adhere to the knife roller. The colored SMC, twistless roving to be soaked in resin paste resin with high pigment content. Usually SMC twistless roving is generally 2400tex, a few are also useful 4800tex.

(3) with no winding roving winding method used in the manufacture of various caliber FRP pipes, storage tank and so on. Wound by the twistless roving the number from 1200 to 9600, the winding of large pipes and tanks tend to direct twistless roving, such as 4800tex direct twistless roving. The wound by the twistless roving requirements are as follows: zonation, flat ribbon; twistless roving unwinding is good, from yarn unwinding is not off the ring, not the formation of the "bird's nest" shape floss; uniform tension, no drape phenomena; the line density is uniform, the general should be less than ± 7%; the twistless roving permeability good, from a resin tank by easy for resin wetting and penetration.


(4) used in pultrusion twistless roving pultrusion for manufacturing various profiles consistent section, which is characterized by high content of unidirectional glass fiber, high strength. Pultrusion twistless roving can be combined multiple strands can be twisted roving without direct, the line density range from 1100 to 4400. Various performance requirements and winding roving without substantially the same.



(5) for weaving an important use of untwisted yarn twistless roving is weaving all kinds of thickness of the fabrics or unidirectional twistless roving fabrics, they are mostly used in FRP hand lay-up molding process. For the strong made of untwisted yarn has the following requirements: 1. Good wear resistance; good zonation; weaving with untwisted yarn before weaving by forced drying; twistless roving tension uniform, drape should meet certain standards; the twistless roving unwinding is good; the untwisted roving good soak.

(6) twistless roving in preform process with the preform, twistless roving is chopped and sprayed in a predetermined shape online, and spray a small amount of the resin fiber net fixed form, and then forming the fiber mesh into the metal mold, resin is injected into the hot forming, the products. The performance requirements of roving without this technology and twistless roving on the injection requirements are basically the same.

2, twistless roving fabric (cloth)

Fang Gebu is twistless roving plain fabric, is the important base of FRP hand lay-up. Fang Gebu's main strength in warp and weft direction of fabric, for zonal or high strength of the occasion, can also be woven into unidirectional cloth, it can be no more roving to warp or weft arrangement.

The other cloth quality requirements are as follows: fabric selvedge uniform, flat, smooth surface was sheeted, no stains, pilling, crease, wrinkles, etc.; the weft density, weight, width and length are in line with the standard; the wound on the core firm, neat resin rapidly, the winding; good permeability; the fabric made of laminated material of dry, wet mechanical strength shall meet the requirements.

Composite materials with cloth laying molding is characterized by interlaminar shear strength is low, the pressure and fatigue intensity difference.

3, glass fiber mat

(1) chopped strand mat glass raw silk (sometimes with twistless roving) cut into 50mm long, it will be randomly and evenly Chen in the mesh belt, followed by emulsion binder or spreading powder binder bonded into chopped strand mat after being cured by heating. Chopped strand mat is mainly used for hand lay-up, continuous plate and mold molding and SMC process. The chopped strand mat quality requirements are as follows: along the width direction of uniform quality area; chopped strand mat surface in uniform distribution, no big hole forming, binder distribution; ③ with moderate strength, excellent dry felt; the resin infiltration and penetration.

(2) the continuous strand mat glass filament formation during drawing or from raw silk tube back out of the continuous strand in Figure 8 are laid on a continuously moving mesh belt, the powder adhesive bonding. Continuous fiber glass strand mat is continuous, so the enhancement effect of the composite is chopped strand mat. Mainly used in pultrusion method, RTM method, pressure bag and glass mat reinforced thermoplastics (GMT) process.

(3) surface mat glass steel products usually need to form a resin layer, which is generally used in the alkali glass surface mat to achieve. This kind of felt by alkali glass (C) is made, it gives the chemical resistance of glass steel especially acid resistance, at the same time, because the thin glass fiber felt with thinner diameter, therefore, also can absorb more resin resin rich layer, covering the glass fiber reinforced materials (such as fabrics) lines, up to the surface modification effect.

(4) needled needled felt or divided into short cut fiber needle felt and continuous filament needle felt. Short cut fiber needle felt is fiberglass roving short cut into 50mm, random placement in previously placed on a conveyor belt on the substrate, and then use the barbed needle acupuncture, the needle will be chopped fiber stab into the base material, and the crochet and some fiber to form three-dimensional structure belt. The substrate can be a thin fabric of glass fiber and other fibers, the needle felt a sense of chorionic villi. Principal uses include for heat insulation and sound insulation materials, lining materials, filtering materials, can also be used in the production of glass fiber reinforced plastic, but the glass steel strength is low, the use of a limited range. Another class of continuous fiber needle felt, is a continuous glass strand by throwing silk device randomly thrown in the continuous mesh belt, the board needle, formation of fibrous mutually three-dimensional structure even felt. This mat is mainly used in glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics can be stamped sheet production.

(5) suture felt short glass fiber from 50mm and 60cm are available for stitch-bonding machine to stitch chopped fiber or fiber mat, chopped strand mat which can replace the traditional in some uses adhesive bond, which to a certain extent, instead of continuous strand mat. Their common advantages without binder, avoid the pollution of the production process, at the same time with good performance, low price.

4, chopped strand and grated fiber

(1) chopped strands chopped strand divided dry chopped strand and wet chopped strands. The former is used in reinforced plastics production, while the latter is used for making paper. For short cut glass steel strand is divided into reinforced thermosetting resin (BMC) with chopped strands and reinforced with chopped strand two kinds of thermoplastic resin. The reinforced with chopped strand thermoplastic requirements with alkali-free glass fiber, high strength and good insulation, chopped strand integrity is good, good fluidity, high whiteness. Reinforced thermosetting plastics


(2) grinding fiber grinding fiber by the hammer mill or ball mill grinding and chopped fiber. Grated fiber in reinforced reaction injection technology (RRIM) as reinforcing material, used as the filler in the resin casting products manufacturing, mold and other products to improve the surface crack phenomenon, reduce shrinkage, but also can be used as reinforcement material.



5, glass fiber fabric

The following is the introduction of various glass fiber glass fiber yarn woven fabric.

(1) glass cloth production in China glass cloth, divided into non alkali and alkali two, most are alkali-free glass cloth. Glass cloth is mainly used for the production of a variety of electrical insulation laminates, printed circuit boards, all kinds of vehicles, tanks, boats, mould etc.. Alkali glass cloth is mainly used for the production of plastic packaging, as well as for corrosion resistance. The fabric properties by fiber properties, density of warp and weft weave, yarn structure and decision. Warp and weft density and decided by the yarn structure and fabric. Jingwei mithcah on yarn structure, determines the physical properties of fabrics, such as weight, thickness and breaking strength. There are five basic types: plain weave, twill weave, satin, rib and hopsack.

(2) glass with glass belt is divided into a ribbon and ribbon (with no burr) main anti-corrosion plain fabric. Commonly used in the manufacture of glass with high strength, good dielectric property of electrical equipment parts.

(3) one-way fabric one-way fabric is a kind of coarse warp and weft four fine after breaking satin or Long Satin fabric. Its characteristic is the main upward in the warp with high strength.

(4) three-dimensional fabric three-dimensional fabric is relatively flat fabric, its structure from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, so this has good integrity and copying of reinforced composite body, greatly improving the composite interlayer shear strength and resistance to damage tolerance. It is with the aerospace, aviation, weapons, ships and other departments of the development of special needs, at present its application has been extended to the automobile, sports equipment, medical equipment and other departments. There are mainly five categories: woven three-dimensional fabric, knitting three-dimensional fabric, orthogonal and non-orthogonal nonwoven fabric, 3D braided fabrics and other forms of three-dimensional fabric. Three-dimensional fabric shape block, column, tubular, hollow truncated cone and variable thickness profile.

(5) shaped fabric shaped fabric shape and it should enhance the product shape is very similar, must be in a special loom weaving. The symmetric shape of the deformed fabric: round cover, cone, cap, dumbbell shaped fabrics, also can be made into box, asymmetric shape of the hull.

(6) trough core fabric trough core fabric is composed of two layers of parallel fabric, with longitudinal bars connected of the composition of the fabric, the shape of the cross section can be triangular or rectangular.

(7) glass fiber braid, knitted or woven mat mat, which is different from the ordinary fabric, but also different from the usual sense of felt. The most typical braid is a layer of a layer of warp and weft overlap together, by stitching the warp and weft woven together into fabric. Joint advantages of woven fabric are as follows: first, it can increase the glass fiber reinforced plastic laminates ultimate tensile strength, delamination strength and bending strength of tension; reduces the weight of the glass steel products; smooth surface so that the glass steel surface is smooth; simplified hand lay-up operation, improve labor productivity. The reinforcing material can be in the pultrusion of glass steel and RTM instead of continuous strand mat, can also replace the cloth in the production of centrifugal glass tube.

6, combination of glass fiber reinforced materials

Since 70 time, the chopped strand mat, continuous strand mat, twistless roving fabrics and twistless roving, by reinforcing material combination of some, there are the following:

(1) chopped strand mat + twistless roving fabric

(2) chopped strand mat + no roving, chopped strand mat

(3) chopped strand mat + continuous strand mat, chopped strand mat

(4) chopped than felt + random twistless roving

(5) chopped strand mat or cloth + unidirectional carbon fiber

(6) chopped strand + surface mat

(7) glass cloth + one-way twistless roving or glass rod + glass cloth


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